Endoscopy means looking inside and typically refers to looking inside the body for medical reasons using an endoscope, an instrument used to examine the interior of a hollow organ or cavity of the body. Unlike most other medical imaging devices, endoscopes are inserted directly into the organ. Endoscopy can also refer to using a borescope in technical situations where direct line of-sight observation is not…
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Colonoscopy is the endoscopic examination of the large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a
fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus. It may provide a visual diagnosis (e.g. ulceration, polyps) and grants the opportunity for biopsy or removal of suspected
colorectal cancer lesions. Colonoscopy can remove
polyps as small…
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Liver Disease

Liver disease (also called hepatic disease) is an umbrella term referring to damage to or
disease of the
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Gastroenterology (MeSH heading) is a branch of
medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders. The name is a combination of three
Ancient Greek words gaster (gen.: gastros) (stomach), enteron (intestine), and
logos (reason). In the United States, Gastroenterology is an Internal Medicine Subspecialty certified by the
American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) and the
American Osteopathic Board
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Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a technique that combines the use of endoscopy and fluoroscopy to diagnose and treat certain problems of the biliary or pancreatic ductal systems. Through the endoscope, the physician can see the inside of the stomach and duodenum, and inject dyes into the ducts in the biliary tree and pancreas so they can be seen on X-rays. ERCP…
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Liver Transplant

Liver transplantation or hepatic transplantation is the replacement of a diseased
liver with a healthy liver allograft. The most commonly used technique is orthotopic transplantation, in which the native liver is removed and replaced by the donor organ in the same anatomic location as the original liver. Liver transplantation nowadays is a well accepted treatment option for end-stage liver disease and acute liver failure.…
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The liver, hepar, is a vital organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. It has a wide range of functions, including
protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for
digestion. The liver is necessary for survival; there is currently no way to compensate for the absence of liver function in the long term, although new liver dialysis techniques can be…
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This article is about using reflux in chemical engineering and chemistry. For other usage, see Reflux (disambiguation). Reflux is a distillation technique involving the condensation of vapors and the return of this condensate to the system from which it originated. It is used in industrial and laboratory distillations. It is also used in chemistry to supply energy to reactions over…
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The abdomen (less formally called the belly), in vertebrates such as mammals, constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis. The region enclosed by the abdomen is termed the abdominal cavity. In arthropods it is the posterior tagma of the body; it follows the thorax or cephalothorax. Anatomically, the abdomen stretches from the thorax at the thoracic diaphragm to the pelvis…
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